All 7 Known Kingdoms of Middle-earth, Explained

Map of Middle-earth (Lord of the Rings) and Key Locations

In the vast world of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth, from “The Lord of the Rings” saga, numerous kingdoms rise and fall, each with its own story and unique charm. But just how many of these kingdoms exist, and what do we truly know about them? Let’s delve into the heart of Middle-earth and discover its kingdoms.

The known kingdoms of Middle-earth

Middle-earth is a tapestry of tales, heroes, villains, and splendid kingdoms. Each kingdom stands distinct, having its own traditions, leaders, and history. While there’s a lot Tolkien shared with us, especially about the West, some parts remain shrouded in mystery.

Still, of the many regions and realms, seven major kingdoms often come to the forefront when discussing the lands of Middle-earth. These are Arnor, Gondor, Rohan, Dale, Mirkwood, Mordor, and Haradrim.

They each played pivotal roles in the fate of Middle-earth, becoming central to the events of “The Lord of the Rings” saga. Let’s journey through these realms and get to know them a bit better.

1. Arnor: The Northern Dúnedain Kingdom

In the northern reaches of Middle-earth lies the ancient kingdom of Arnor, once the proud domain of the Dúnedain. These noble folk descended from the Númenoreans, sea-farers who settled in Middle-earth. Arnor’s expansive territory encompassed much of Eriador, stretching from the Gulf of Lune west to the rivers Greyflood and Loudwater east.

The capital, Annúminas, beside the serene Lake Evendim, was a beacon of culture and power. But as time flowed, the kingdom’s grandeur faded. Civil wars and external threats led to its division into three smaller realms: Arthedain, Cardolan, and Rhudaur. By the Third Age, many of its once-majestic cities, including its capital, lay in ruins.


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Yet, the legacy of Arnor wasn’t entirely lost. The bloodline of its kings endured, and in the twilight of the Third Age, hope rekindled with the crowning of Aragorn II Elessar, who sought to reunite the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor.

2. Gondor: The Kingdom of Men

To the south of Middle-earth stands Gondor, often hailed as the greatest kingdom of Men. Its white walls and majestic cities echo tales of valor and glory. Bordered by Rohan to the north, Harad to the south, and the shadowy realm of Mordor to the east, Gondor has always been a beacon of resistance against the dark forces.

Founded by the brothers Isildur and Anárion, Gondor saw its early days illuminated by the grandeur of Númenor. Its first capital, Osgiliath, shone brightly on the banks of the Anduin. But as ages passed, Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard, became the heart of Gondor, with its seven levels, each guarded by a gate.

Through wars, civil strife, and the relentless pressure of Sauron’s malice, Gondor faced moments of both brilliance and decay. Its line of kings was disrupted, and stewards took over the rule, hoping a true king would one day return.

As prophecies foretold, Aragorn II Elessar, a direct heir from the line of Isildur, did return to claim the throne, marking a new era for the realm. Gondor remains an enduring symbol of mankind’s resilience and hope in Middle-earth.

3. Rohan: The Land of Horsemen

Nestled amidst the rolling plains and vast grasslands to the north of Gondor, we find Rohan, the homeland of the valiant Rohirrim. Known for their unmatched skill in horsemanship, these noble warriors have etched their legacy into the annals of Middle-earth.

Rohan’s spirit is intertwined with that of the horse. In this expansive landscape, the bond between rider and steed is sacred. The very name ‘Rohirrim’ translates to ‘Horse-lords,’ highlighting their deep connection to these majestic creatures.

The golden hall of Meduseld in Edoras is a testament to Rohan’s rich heritage. Overlooking the plains, it’s here that the King of Rohan, along with his council, makes pivotal decisions for the kingdom. The hall draws inspiration from ancient tales, notably reminiscent of Heorot from the epic of Beowulf.

Under the leadership of King Théoden and later his nephew Éomer, Rohan faced dark times, from internal treachery to external threats like the formidable army of Saruman.

But with courage and unity, the Rohirrim charged into battle, their war cries echoing across the plains, proving time and again their unwavering dedication to Middle-earth’s greater good. Their valor in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields symbolizes hope and bravery for all of Middle-earth.

4. Dale and the Kingdom under the Mountain

Dale and the Kingdom under the Mountain

In the shadow of the Lonely Mountain, also known as Erebor, lies the bustling town of Dale, a vibrant trading hub where Men and Dwarves coexist harmoniously. With the majestic mountain as its backdrop, this region has witnessed both prosperity and despair.

Erebor, the Kingdom under the Mountain, holds a special place in the hearts of Dwarves. Founded by Thráin I, this kingdom was home to vast treasures, the most coveted of which was the Arkenstone, a gem of unparalleled beauty. However, its splendor attracted the greed of Smaug, the terrible dragon who laid waste on both Dale and Erebor, driving out its inhabitants and claiming the mountain’s treasures.

Dale, with its renowned toy market and melodious bells, lay in ruins for years, its once joyous streets echoing the sorrows of its people. But with time and the courage of heroes like Bard the Bowman, who vanquished Smaug, the town and the mountain kingdom were reborn.


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Under the leadership of King Dáin II, the Dwarves reclaimed their ancestral home in Erebor, restoring it to its former glory. Meanwhile, Dale was rebuilt under the rule of Bard and his descendants. Dale and the Kingdom under the Mountain stand as a testament to the resilience, unity, and enduring spirit of Middle-earth’s inhabitants.

5. Mirkwood: The Elven Sanctuary

Deep within the dense forests of Middle-earth, Mirkwood stands as a realm of mystery and enchantment. A place where trees reach for the skies and the air is thick with ancient magic. This sprawling woodland, once known as Greenwood the Great, is home to the Woodland Elves, with their timeless beauty and unmatched agility.

Led by the wise King Thranduil, the Elves of Mirkwood are a distinct kind. Unlike their kin in places like Lothlórien or Rivendell, the Silvan Elves have a wilder, more enigmatic aura, mirroring the unpredictable nature of their homeland. Mirkwood itself is a labyrinth of secrets. Its towering trees and twisted pathways hide both wondrous beauty and lurking dangers, from enchanting streams to giant spiders.

The Elven palace, concealed deep within the forest, is a wonder in itself. Lit by the soft glow of countless lanterns and protected by magical barriers, it serves as the heart of the Woodland Realm. Here, amidst halls echoing with Elvish songs, Thranduil holds court, ensuring the safety and prosperity of his subjects.

However, as with many places in Middle-earth, Mirkwood too has faced its share of darkness, especially with the growing influence of Sauron. But the Elves, with their ageless spirit, have always risen to defend their sanctuary, making sure that Mirkwood remains a beacon of hope and a testament to the enduring magic of the Elves.

6. Mordor: The Land of Shadows


In the southeast corner of Middle-earth lies Mordor, a barren and foreboding land dominated by the dark peak of Mount Doom. This desolate realm starkly contrasts the rest of the world, where hope seems to wither, and shadows rule.

Controlled by the Dark Lord Sauron, Mordor isn’t just a land; it’s a symbol of oppression and evil. Its very name evokes fear in the hearts of those who hear it. Encircled by towering mountain ranges on three sides, it seems almost impenetrable, a fortress for its dark ruler.


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Within its borders, the land is harsh and unforgiving. The air is thick with ash, and the waters of the River Anduin are tainted. Orcs, trolls, and other foul creatures roam its expanses, obeying the will of their master. At the heart of it all stands the Dark Tower, Barad-dûr, from where Sauron’s malevolent gaze watches over Middle-earth.

Yet, despite its aura of invincibility, Mordor has its vulnerabilities. Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee, two brave hobbits, proved that even in the darkest places, there’s a glimmer of hope. Their perilous journey into this very heart of darkness was a testament to the strength of the spirit and the power of friendship.

In the end, Mordor serves as a reminder: no matter how overwhelming the odds and how deep the shadows are, there’s always a chance for light to pierce through.

7. Haradrim: The Southern Men

Haradrim The Southern Men

Far to the south of Gondor, beyond the vast deserts and scorching sun, lie the lands of the Haradrim. Often referred to as the Southrons by those in the north, these people are as diverse and vibrant as the landscapes they inhabit.

The Haradrim are not a monolithic group but rather a tapestry of various tribes and cultures, each with its own traditions and ways of life. From the nomadic tribes wandering the vast deserts to the mighty warriors mounted on colossal oliphaunts, the Haradrim showcase strength and resilience molded by their harsh environment.

Under the sway of the Dark Lord Sauron, many of the Haradrim were drawn into wars against Gondor and its allies. Their fierce warriors and swift cavalry made them formidable adversaries on the battlefield. Yet, it’s essential to remember that, like all peoples of Middle-earth, they were not innately evil. The influence of Sauron, combined with their long-standing enmities with Gondor, drove them to conflict.

The Haradrim, with their colorful garb, intricate tattoos, and unique battle cries, added a layer of depth to the vast world of Middle-earth. Their story serves as a reminder that every culture, no matter how distant or different, has its own tales of valor, honor, and sacrifice.

The mystery of Dwarven kingdoms


Dwarves, with their love for stone and gems, have always been a cornerstone of Middle-earth’s intricate lore. These stout-hearted folk, known for their craftsmanship and bravery, are often associated with the mountains and caverns where they establish their realms. But while we’ve heard tales of their grand halls and glittering treasures, the full picture of Dwarven kingdoms remains, in many ways, an enigma.

We know of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves, the progenitors of their kind, and we’ve heard stories of the Seven Rings that were gifted to them by Sauron. Yet, a clear delineation of seven distinct kingdoms is absent from Tolkien’s writings. What we have are fragments of stories and mentions of cities like Erebor, the Lonely Mountain, and Khazad-dûm, the grandest of them all.

Within these halls, Dwarves carved out lives filled with song and labor, fashioning artifacts of beauty and function from the very bones of the earth. Their societies were deep-rooted in honor and tradition, often keeping them isolated from the other races of Middle-earth.


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But while many of their tales are sung, much about the Dwarves remains mysterious. Did the seven clans establish seven distinct kingdoms? Or were there lost realms, tales of which never reached our ears? The answers may be buried deep within the mountains, waiting for a new tale-spinner to unearth them.

Ultimately, the Dwarves’ legacy in Middle-earth is not just in the treasures they left behind but in the questions that continue to ignite our imagination.

Other notable societies and regions in Middle-earth

Middle-earth is a vast, diverse tapestry of cultures, landscapes, and stories. Beyond the prominent kingdoms, many other societies and regions play pivotal roles in the epic narrative. Although not kingdoms in the traditional sense, these places are equally rich in history, intrigue, and significance.

  • Lothlorien: An elven realm located east of the Misty Mountains. It’s a forested haven protected by Galadriel and Celeborn, where time seems to stand still, and the golden leaves never fade.
  • Settlement of Woodmen: Situated in Mirkwood’s western eaves, these hardy folk live close to nature, often acting as a buffer against the darker forces lurking in the depths of the forest.
  • Beorning Lands: Home to the Beornings, shape-shifting men led by Beorn. With their unique ability to transform into bears, these people act as protectors of the passages near the Misty Mountains.
  • Rivendell: An elven sanctuary established by Elrond, nestled in a secluded valley. Known for its libraries and lore, it’s a place of knowledge and refuge for many seeking to escape the world’s perils.
  • Laketown (Esgaroth): A human settlement built on Long Lake’s shores, it serves as a vital trade hub in the region, especially after the re-establishment of the Kingdom under the Mountain.
  • Bree: A bustling town at the crossroads of major pathways in Eriador. It’s a melting pot of different races, including Men and Hobbits, known for its inns and vibrant market.
  • The Shire: Home to the Hobbits, this serene and fertile land is characterized by its rolling hills, farmlands, and a love for simple pleasures. A place where adventures begin and often find their end.
  • Orcs of the Misty Mountains: Not a society in the traditional sense, but these orcs and goblins have carved out a menacing presence in the caverns and tunnels beneath the mountain ranges.
  • Grey Havens: Located west of the Shire, it’s the Elven port from which the Eldar set sail, leaving Middle-earth for the Undying Lands across the sea. A symbol of farewells and new beginnings.
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